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Commonly shortened to StAR, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein plays a key role in mitochondrial transport within steroid-producing cells, regulating hormone production by controlling cholesterol transfer within the mitochondria. StAR is a member of the START domain protein family, and is also known as START domain-containing protein 1, or STARD1. Antibody suppliers may list it under either or both names. Star antibodies have proven important in several areas of research.

StAR is a protein of 285 amino acids, located on chromosome 8p. It is found in a number of steroid-producing areas including the ovary, testes and adrenal cortex. Its primary purpose is to mediate transfer of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner surface, so that the enzyme cytochrome P450scc can cleave the side chain, performing the first stage of steroid synthesis.

Cholesterol is a lipophilic protein and is therefore unable to cross the aqueous membrane layer unaided. Antibody studies have shown StAR to be the most important mediator of this process, assisted by a number of other proteins. These include TSPO, SCP2 and the Steroidogenic Activator Polypeptide SAP.

It is known that the signalling sequence by which StAR is targeted to the mitochondria is a two-stage process, with activity increased by phosphorylation at position 195. Cholesterol transfer is achieved via the START (StAR-related transfer) domain. However, the exact mechanism of action by which StAR achieves cholesterol transport remains unclear. A number of mechanisms have been suggested, including binding to cholesterol in a shuttle-type process; however, the evidence points to it acting more like a channel. Other hypotheses include desorption of the cholesterol through the membrane; the creation of contact sites, or interaction with PBR.

StAR expression may not be as restricted as we think. Recently, J.M Taylor and others published a study showing StAR expression in macrophages, where it stimulated production of 27-hydroxycholesterol, suggesting a possible anti-inflammatory role in cardiovascular disease. An earlier study suggested a role in bile production. Although neither of these studies has proven conclusive, it seems the StAR antibodies we at Novus Biologicals have on our antibody database have more secrets yet to unveil.

The Article is written by providing Antibody and Antibodies Services.Visit http://www.novusbio.comfor more information on Products & Services. Visit for more services!

Bottled water is a success that was unseen by most people. It served as a laughing stock to citizen who heard from someone that water should be sold. Well, distilled water is now a multi-billion dollar business. Who’s laughing now, huh? But then again, here comes another marketed basic necessity that even I laugh at. Canned Oxygen. This threatens to replace that priceless air quality in Minnesota. And boy, it’s $ 20 a bottle.

If we will closely look at the threat to this Minnesota air quality I really adore, Canned Oxygen features pure oxygen. Scientific studies show that when people inhale pure oxygen, it gives a temporary boost in energy and stamina. Mold removal Minnesota guys I know who finish half-a-kilometer pool, could finish another mile after some inhaling.

Come to think about it, even my cousins, who are diligent Minnesota mold inspection foot soldiers, need pure oxygen when worse comes to stress. It clears the mind and relieves us from stress. I know, I got a shot on this one when a friend let me breathe from his law-review messiah. It was invigorating, actually, that it made me feel better that very moment. It matched that Minnesota indoor air quality I am very proud of.

I did some research, though (last seven months ago). First thing I’ve learned, these pure oxygen cans come in flavors. You decide the purity of that. Second, pure oxygen is lethal. Oxygen is one of the most toxic elements in the environment. It just so happens that evolution made us adapt to the perfect mixture of toxics around us.

You think only people with lung complications should use this? Think again. Pure oxygen makes carbon dioxide immunization toxic. CO2 is toxic. If we only get used to taking pure oxygen, our bodies reaction toCO2 might get us into trouble. Heard of the saying, “no one dies from dirtiness but cleanliness kills?” That’s the probability here when we become “new” and vulnerable to carbon dioxide exposure.

Who only uses pure oxygen or similar to that? Only astronauts use this. Why? For the very same reason you need the billion-year-old oxygen. Here’s the catch though, astronauts are safe with pure oxygen because space has low pressure. Use it on earth for a day and expect fluid in your lungs.

Then again, we are talking about a whole-day of pure oxygen. It wouldn’t hurt if use when we are much stressed.

Will it be a necessity? Well, take a look around us. If we continue to mess up with mother earth, pollution will kick in and CO2 and carbon monoxide will be heavier than the normal mixture in our atmosphere.

It might or might not be a necessity. It all depends on our actions. But for now, let’s enjoy the Atlantic’s breeze, the hurricane’s turbulence, and the breath of our partners. Never mind the last part.

Andrew Beene is an expert writer that writer about minnesota air quality, air quality in Minnesota, mold removal Minnesota. For more information about the site, visit

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I like woodworking; the satisfaction I derive both in the building process and the sense of achievement and pride in the finished product make it the ideal hobby for me. Woodworking is a avocation that can be practiced at almost any age. I began doing woodworking projects at about age ten slipping into the pattern shop in my fathers foundry and building model boats.

By contrast the frustration is immense when the project does not go well. The latter can be pretty much prevented when you build a storage shed by using a good set of plans and directions. Building a storage shed or doing any other woodworking project from scratch is time consuming and demands that you spend several man-hours planning your bill of materials, taking very careful measurements and then constructing your project from start to finish. You have worries along the way such as: Did I forget something? Is everything correct?

Sometimes it seems like it’s just impossible to get it all perfectly right. You need hours and hours of time that most of us do not have to accomplish the project on a few precious weekends. If you have a lot of experience building storage sheds and other wood working projects or you’re just starting out, an easy and systematic way to do the new project would relieve a lot of stress.

 I have found the solution to how to build a storage shed for the experienced semi-pro wood-worker or rank amateur. If it can be made out of wood, it will most likely be here. Toys are included too. All plans are complete from start to finish, and include material lists, detailed diagrams, and explicit step by step instructions.

Many different designs for each type of project are also included. For example, there are hundreds of designs for outdoor buildings, from small sheds all the way up to a complete stable. Choose whatever type of shed or storage house is right for you. Pick from fancy ones or more utilitarian designs.

I am a lifelong do it yourselfer and wood working enthusiast. With this background I quickly recognized the total value of the My Shed Plans Elite package. Add it up- any of the plan services on the net or in the magazines charge To for a set of plans for a single project. If you love woodworking for fun or profit then this program is for you. As a woodworking enthusiast, you will see the value of this! You will be glad to know that this program is the most complete home project resource offered on the Internet or anywhere else. You will get expert advice and step-by-step instructions, photos and diagrams to make every project easy to build.

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As long as law enforcement agencies have been dealing with recorded audio and video, there’s been a need for law enforcement transcription. Despite advancements in technology, those pieces of audio and video that are entered into evidence or as part of an investigation still need to be transcribed for reasons of documentation and clarity.

The responsibility for transcription has commonly fallen on the shoulders of those professionals that require the work; law enforcement agencies, attorneys, public defenders, prosecutors, security companies, and others.

Unfortunately, over time the caseloads for law enforcement agencies have increased while there has been no increase (and sometimes a decrease) in personnel to manage the work and influx of forensic transcription.

Budget cuts have made it virtually impossible for many law enforcement agencies to bring on additional staff to assist with the translation and transcription, creating a nightmare of labor costs for many divisions.

Security Concerns

The possibility of outsourcing forensic transcription is one that is routinely discussed in many agencies, but many have reservations about utilizing outsourced services, particularly when delicate evidence in audio and video is concerned.

In the past many agencies were wary about sending out hardcopies of audio and video to be handled by a law enforcement transcription company when considering the potential of that content becoming “lost” or corrupted.

Likewise, the more hands an item passed through, the greater the chance of the material becoming damaged or leaked – especially to the media. These security concerns have encouraged a number of agencies to retain the transcription and translation work in house.

As technology has advanced however, new and far safer methods make it extremely simple to get the necessary content to a transcription service; Audio and video content can be uploaded to a secured server managed by the transcription service.

This secure upload makes it easy to monitor and maintain who has custody of the content because it passes easily from point A (the law enforcement agency that requires the transcription) to point B (the transcription service).

Reeling Budget Considerations

With the economical upset across the nation, many law enforcement agencies have suffered severe budget cuts that cost them both personnel and equipment. As such, it’s been extremely difficult for many of those agencies to justify paying an additional cost for outsourcing forensic transcription.

For many transcription services, it is common to charge by the line or by the page. Unfortunately it’s often very difficult to determine how many pages an interview will leave you with once it’s transcribed. There is another option that can make budgeting easier for law enforcement agencies, and that’s to opt for transcription services that charge by the minute.

That means if an agency needs transcription for a 46 minute interview – whether in audio or video format – then the agency is charged for 46 minutes.

The Real Benefit of Outsourcing Law Enforcement Transcription

The real problem facing law enforcement agencies, and any agency involved in the criminal justice system that is subject to strict budgets, is that in-house transcription takes up a tremendous amount of time and man power to complete.

Many agencies oppose outsourced transcription services because they fear the cost, as mentioned previously, but they don’t consider the actual cost of keeping that transcription in-house. Their intention is to save money by keeping transcription in-house but unfortunately that decision is costing some agencies a great deal of money.

Paid to those employees, secretaries, etc. who are required to transcribe the data – sometimes in the form of overtime depending on the case load.

*Management Expenses
Transcriptions typically need to be reviewed for accuracy and tracked to ensure that they are being completed in a timely manner. This can take time away from those in positions of authority within the department or agency.

*Cost of Information Technology
The cost of purchasing and maintaining software and hardware plus the training of employees and personnel to utilize the equipment for audio and video transcription

*Overflow and Delay Costs
There are inevitable times when delays occur which can pose significant problems to law enforcement cases where a deadline is concerned. Often the overflow and delayed material winds up in the hands of an outsourced company. Due to a looming deadline and thus a rapid turnaround requirement, the cost for such a service is often higher.

A Viable Alternative

Forensic and law enforcement transcription & translation outsourcing have become one of the primary ways that many agencies are finding budget relief. With skilled outsourcing to a service that employs trained forensic transcriptionists, law enforcement agencies gain a number of benefits:


Reduced man hours of on-site personnel
Elimination of the need to hire additional personnel to meet demands
Improved quality of the transcribed content
Reduced delays in transcription (rapid turnaround)


Outsourcing of forensic transcription means that far more agencies will be able to put their personnel where they belong – focusing on the agency’s primary responsibilities. With skilled outsourcing, law enforcement agencies, security companies, and so-on can trim costs because they are able to get transcripts completed on time, thus meeting the demand of an increased case load without the need to hire more staff or force current staff to burn the candle at both ends.

The new age of digital transcription via the web has given law enforcement agencies, public defenders offices, security companies, and others a means of maintaining the security of their data as it’s being passed off to trained forensic transcriptionists, and a rapid turnaround on those pressing cases that need to be handled quickly.

TransDual Forensics offers digital and analog transcription services. Our areas of expertise include law enforcement transcription, criminal justice, forensic pathology, and general transcription services. For more information visit our website to read about our legal transcription services.

You must have seen in movies a detective putting a device in a vehicle to track where the vehicle is heading to. You may have also read in books that someone used a tracking device to find the whereabouts of their spouse to confirm whether they are cheating on them or not. These devices are known as GPS system or GPS tracker. They are used to track the location of a vehicle or any other object or even a child.

You can use special GPS tracking devices to protect your precious belongings like jewelry, electronics, etc. If they are stolen, you can simply log in via a computer and track where your items exactly are. To locate items inside a building, you may need a special kind of GPS tracker.

GPS system is especially valuable to track a young child. You can easily locate them with GPS tracker. In case of abduction, a child can be found easily and quickly. If your child even gets lost accidentally, you will be able to locate them in a convenient manner, without feeling worried at all.

GPS tracking system is very easy to install in cars. You can install it underneath your vehicle or even in your glove compartment. You will then be able to track the location of the vehicle and also find out where the car was taken to, with full addresses, and the date and time it reached the destination. You will also be able to track the speed of the vehicle.

GPS tracker with magnet is extremely useful for detectives and private investigators. Its ability to be attached to metal surface makes it very easy to use.

GPS devices require you to pay an activation fee as well as a monthly fee. Based on the package you intend to acquire, your cost will differ as well as the count of updates you will receive. So, buy a GPS tracker or GPS system after thorough research and choose a package that will best suit your needs.

Aki Za is a security consultant and write about various security equipment including gps system and other security items.


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